Peer review is the process through which research manuscripts, conference abstracts, proposals, and grants are examined by qualified reviewers who are able to determine the quality of the submitted research work. The use of the word "peer" means that reviewers are of similar competence to the researcher who produced the work. This peer review process aims at mainting standards of publication quality, and to provide credibility in academic research.
Peer review - History
The first documented description of a peer-review process was presented in the Ethics of the Physician book written, in the 9th-century, by the Arab physician Ishaq ibn Ala al-Ruhawi (854-931). In 1997, Muhammad Z. Al-Kawi publised "history of medical records and peer review", in which he discussed the book of "Ethics of the Physician" and the work of Al Rahawi, who lived in Al Raha, in northern Syria. Later, in 2002, Ray Spier published in Trends in Biotechnology : "the history of the peer-review process".
We provide here some resources and publications about the peer review process.
Peer Review Guides & Manuals
- European Peer Review Guide (European Science Foundation, 2011)
- Peer review - A guide for researchers (Research Information Network, 2010)
- Peer review guide for early career researchers (Sense About Science, 2012)
- COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2013)
- A Guide to Peer Review in Ecology and Evolution (The British Ecological Society, 2013)