Peer Review - Tools and Resources

  • Posted on: 24 April 2014
  • Last updated on: 12 September 2019

Peer review

Peer review is the process through which research manuscripts, conference abstracts, proposals, and grants are examined by qualified reviewers who are able to determine the quality of the submitted research work. The use of the word "peer" means that reviewers are of similar competence to the researcher who produced the work. This peer review process aims at mainting standards of publication quality, and to provide credibility in academic research.

Peer review - History

The first documented description of a peer-review process was presented in the Ethics of the Physician book written, in the 9th-century, by the Arab physician Ishaq ibn Ala al-Ruhawi (854-931). In 1997, Muhammad Z. Al-Kawi publised "history of medical records and peer review", in which he discussed the book of "Ethics of the Physician" and the work of Al Rahawi, who lived in Al Raha, in northern Syria. Later, in 2002, Ray Spier published in Trends in Biotechnology : "the history of the peer-review process".

We provide here some resources and publications about the peer review process.

Peer Review Guides & Manuals

Recent Publications on Peer Review and Publication Ethics


Peer Review: A Better Way.
Eisenberg RL.
Acad Radiol. 2016;23(9): 1071-2.
PubMed ID: 27523429

Mentored Reviews: Maintaining the Transparency and Confidentiality of Peer Review.
Rogers RG.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2016;22(5) :291.
PubMed ID: 27564384

Dangerous Predatory Publishers Threaten Medical Research.
Beall J.
J Korean Med Sci. 2016;31(10) 1511-3.
PubMed ID: 27564384

The peer review process.
Wolf LA.
J Emerg Nurs. 2015;42(5): 454-6.
PubMed ID: 27594079

Peer Review: Past, Present, and Future.
Strax R.
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016;pii: (16): 30492-6.
PubMed ID: 27526972


Peer-Review Fraud--Hacking the Scientific Publication Process.
Haug CJ.
N Engl J Med. 2015;373(25): 2393-5
PubMed ID: 26488392